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Documenti Legislazione Direttive Sicurezza D. Documenti Legislazione DM. Norme armonizzate Direttiva click. In questa Norma si presenta l'applicazione di diverse tecniche, con specifico riferimento ad altre norme internazionali dove il concetto e l'applicazione delle singole tecniche sono descritte in maggior dettaglio. La seconda edizione del annulla e sostituisce la prima edizione pubblicata nel Questa edizione costituisce una revisione tecnica. Questa edizione include le seguenti modifiche significative rispetto alla precedente edizione:.

Bayes analysis 3. Bow tie analysis 5. Brainstorming 6. Business impact analysis 7. Causal mapping 8. Cause consequence analysis 9.

Check lists classifications, taxonomies Cindynic approach Conditional value at risk CVaR Consequence likelihood matrix Cost-benefit analysis Cross impact analysis Decision tree analysis Delphi technique Event tree analysis ETA Fault tree analysis FTA Game theory Interviews Ishikawa analysis fishbone diagram Layers of protection analysis LOPA Markov analysis Monte Carlo analysis Multi criteria analysis Nominal group technique Pareto charts Reliability centred maintenance RCM Risk indices Risk register S curves Scenario analysis Surveys Toxicological risk assessment Value at risk VAR.

Brainstorming 2. Structured or semi-structured interviews 3. Delphi 4. Check-lists 5. Primary hazard analysis 6. Environmental risk assessment 9. SWIFT Business impact analysis Root cause analysis Failure mode effect analysis Fault tree analysis Event tree analysis Cause and consequence analysis Cause-and-effect analysis Layer protection analysis LOPA Decision tree Human reliability analysis Bow tie analysis Reliability centred maintenance Sneak circuit analysis Monte Carlo simulation Bayesian statistics and Bayes Nets FN curves Multi-criteria decision analysis MCDA.

This document provides guidance on the selection and application of various techniques that can be used to help improve the way uncertainty is taken into account and to help understand risk.

The techniques are used within the risk assessment steps of identifying, analysing and evaluating risk as described in ISO , and more generally whenever there is a need to understand uncertainty and its effects.

The techniques described in this document can be used in a wide range of settings, however the majority originated in the technical domain. Some techniques are similar in concept but have different names and methodologies that reflect the history of their development in different sectors. Techniques have evolved over time and continue to evolve, and many can be used in a broad range of situations outside their original application.

Techniques can be adapted, combined and applied in new ways or extended to satisfy current and future needs. This document is an introduction to selected techniques and compares their possible applications, benefits and limitations. It also provides references to sources of more detailed information. Organizations that are required to conduct risk assessments for compliance or conformance purposes would benefit from using appropriate formal and standardized risk assessment techniques.

Uncertainty is a term which embraces many underlying concepts. Many attempts have been made, and continue to be developed, to categorize types of uncertainty. Not all uncertainty can be understood, and the significance of uncertainty might be hard or impossible to define or influence. However, a recognition that uncertainty exists in a specific on text enables early warning systems to be put in place to detect change and arrangements to be made to build resilience to cope with unexpected circumstances.

In general terms risk includes the effects of any of the forms of uncertainty described in clause 4. One way of describing risk is as a set of consequences and their likelihoods that might occur as a result of defined but uncertain events. These might have multiple causes and lead to multiple effects. Not all risks can be described in these terms. There is not always an identifiable event.

Further, sources of risk also can include inherent variability, human behaviour and organizational structures and arrangements. In addition consequences may take a number of discrete values, be continuous variables or be unknown.

They may be positive, negative or both. Consequences may not be discernible or measurable at first, but may accumulate over time. It follows that risk cannot always be tabulated easily as a set of events, their consequences and their likelihoods. Risk assessment techniques aim to help people understand uncertainty and the associated risk in this broader, more complex and more diverse context, for the primary purpose of supporting better-informed decisions and actions.

The choice of technique and the way it is applied should be tailored and scaled to the context and use, and provide information of the type and form needed by the stakeholders. In general terms, the number and type of technique selected should be scaled to the significance of the decision, and take into account constraints on time and other resources, and opportunity costs.

In deciding whether a qualitative or quantitative technique is more appropriate, the main criteria to consider are the form of output of most use to stakeholders and the availability and reliability of data. Quantitative techniques generally require high quality data if they are to provide meaningful results. However, in some cases where data is not sufficient, the rigour needed to apply a quantitative technique can provide an improved understanding of the risk, even though the result of the calculation might be uncertain.

There is often a choice of techniques relevant for a given circumstance. Several techniques might need to be considered, and applying more than one technique can sometimes provide useful additional understanding. Different techniques can also be appropriate as more information becomes available. In selecting a technique or techniques the following aspects of context should therefore be considered:. Note Although Annex A and B introduce the techniques severally, it may be necessary to make complementary use of multiple techniques to assess complex systems.

As the degree of uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of the context increases then the need to consult a wider group of stakeholders will increase, with implications for the combination of techniques selected.





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