Davenport and Edgar Bain ,  it is one of the products that may form when austenite the face-centered cubic crystal structure of iron is cooled past a temperature where it no longer is thermodynamically stable with respect to ferrite, cementite, or ferrite and cementite. Davenport and Bain originally described the microstructure as being similar in appearance to tempered martensite. A fine non-lamellar structure, bainite commonly consists of cementite and dislocation -rich ferrite. The large density of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite, and the fine size of the bainite platelets, makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be. In fact, there is no fundamental lower limit to the bainite-start temperature. Most alloying elements will retard the formation of bainite, though carbon is the most effective in doing so.
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Davenport and Edgar Bain ,  it is one of the products that may form when austenite the face-centered cubic crystal structure of iron is cooled past a temperature where it no longer is thermodynamically stable with respect to ferrite, cementite, or ferrite and cementite. Davenport and Bain originally described the microstructure as being similar in appearance to tempered martensite. A fine non-lamellar structure, bainite commonly consists of cementite and dislocation -rich ferrite.
The large density of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite, and the fine size of the bainite platelets, makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be. In fact, there is no fundamental lower limit to the bainite-start temperature. Most alloying elements will retard the formation of bainite, though carbon is the most effective in doing so. The microstructures of martensite and bainite at first seem quite similar, consisting of thin plates which in low-alloy steels cluster together.
This is a consequence of the two microstructures sharing many aspects of their transformation mechanisms. However, morphological differences do exist that require a transmission electron microscope to see.
Under a light microscope , the microstructure of bainite appears darker than untempered martensite because the bainite has more substructure. The hardness of bainite can be between that of pearlite and untempered martensite in the same steel hardness. The fact that it can be produced during both isothermal or continuous cooling is a big advantage, because this facilitates the production of large components without excessive additions of alloying elements.
Unlike martensitic steels, alloys based on bainite often do not need further heat treatment after transformation in order to optimise strength and toughness. In the s Davenport and Bain discovered a new steel microstructure which they provisionally called martensite-troostite, due to it being intermediate between the already known low-temperature martensite phase and what was then known as troostite now fine- pearlite.
The early terminology was further confused by the overlap, in some alloys, of the lower-range of the pearlite reaction and the upper-range of the bainite with the additional possibility of proeutectoid ferrite.
A steel of eutectoid composition will under equilibrium conditions transform into pearlite — an interleaved mixture of ferrite and cementite Fe 3 C. In addition to the thermodynamic considerations indicated by the phase diagram, the phase transformations in steel are heavily influenced by the chemical kinetics. As a consequence, a complex array of microstructures occurs when the atomic mobility is limited.
This leads to the complexity of steel microstructures which are strongly influenced by the cooling rate. This can be illustrated by a continuous cooling transformation CCT diagram which plots the time required to form a phase when a sample is cooled at a specific rate thus showing regions in time-temperature space from which the expected phase fractions can be deduced for a given thermal cycle.
If the steel is cooled slowly or isothermally transformed at elevated temperatures, the microstructure obtained will be closer to equilibrium,  containing for example of allotriomorphic ferrite, cementite and pearlite. However, the transformation from austenite to pearlite is a time-dependent reconstructive reaction which requires the large scale movement of the iron and carbon atoms. As a consequence, a rapidly cooled steel may reach a temperature where pearlite can no longer form despite the reaction being incomplete and the remaining austenite being thermodynamically unstable.
Austenite that is cooled sufficiently rapidly to avoid higher temperature transformations, can form martensite , without any diffusion of either iron or carbon, by the deformation of the austenite's face-centred crystal structure into a distorted body-centred tetragonal or body-centred cubic structure. This non-equilibrium phase can only form at low temperatures, where the driving force for the reaction is sufficient to overcome the considerable lattice strain imposed by the transformation.
The transformation is essentially time-independent with the phase fraction depending only the degree of cooling below the critical martensite start temperature. Bainite occupies a region between these two process in a temperature range where iron self-diffusion is limited but there is insufficient driving force to form martensite. The bainite, like martensite, grows without diffusion but some of the carbon then partitions into any residual austenite, or precipitates as cementite.
A further distinction is often made between so-called lower-bainite, which forms at temperatures closer to the martensite start temperature, and upper-bainite which forms at higher temperatures. This distinction arises from the diffusion rates of carbon at the temperature at which the bainite is forming. If the temperature is high then the carbon will diffuse rapidly away from the newly formed ferrite and form carbides in the carbon-enriched residual austenite between the ferritic plates leaving them carbide-free.
At low temperatures the carbon will diffuse more sluggishly and may precipitate before it can leave the bainitic ferrite. There is some controversy over the specifics of bainite's transformation mechanism; both theories are represented below.
One of the theories on the specific formation mechanism for bainite is that it occurs by a shear transformation, as in martensite. The crystal structure change is achieved by a deformation rather than by diffusion.
The shape change associated with bainite is an invariant—plane strain with a large shear component. This kind of deformation implies a disciplined motion of atoms rather than a chaotic transfer associated with diffusion ,  and is typical of all displacive transformations in steels, for example, martensite, bainite and Widmanstaetten ferrite. There is a strain energy associated with such relief, that leads to the plate shape of the transformation product  Any diffusion is subsequent to the diffusionless transformation of austenite, for example the partitioning of carbon from supersaturated bainitic ferrite, or the precipitation of carbides; this is analogous to the tempering of martensite.
Its growth rate thus depends on how rapidly carbon can diffuse from the growing ferrite into the austenite. A common misconception is that this mechanism excludes the possibility of coherent interfaces and a surface relief. Typically bainite manifests as aggregates, termed sheaves , of ferrite plates sub-units separated by retained austenite, martensite or cementite.
The sheaves themselves are wedge-shaped with the thicker end associated with the nucleation site. The thickness of the ferritic plates is found to increase with the transformation temperature.
Further, the growth of the plates must be accommodated by plastic flow in the surrounding austenite which is difficult if the austenite is strong and resists the plate's growth.
These sheaves contain several laths of ferrite that are approximately parallel to each other and which exhibit a Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship with the surrounding austenite, though this relationship degrades as the transformation temperature is lowered.
The ferrite in these sheaves has a carbon concentration below 0. The amount of cementite that forms between the laths is based on the carbon content of the steel. For a low carbon steel, typically discontinuous "stringers" or small particles of cementite will be present between laths. For steel with a higher carbon content, the stringers become continuous along the length of the adjacent laths. There are not nearly as many low angle boundaries between laths in lower bainite.
In the present context, "incomplete transformation" refers to the fact that in the absence of carbide precipitation, the bainite reaction stops well before the austenite reaches its equilibrium or paraequilibrium chemical composition.
It stops at the point where the free energies of austenite and ferrite of identical composition become the same, i. Early research on bainite found that at a given temperature only a certain volume fraction of the austenite would transform to bainite with the remainder decomposing to pearlite after an extended delay.
This was the case despite the fact that a complete austenite to pearlite transformation could be achieved at higher temperatures where the austenite was more stable.
The fraction of bainite that could form increased as the temperature decreased. This was ultimately explained by accounting for the fact that when the bainitic ferrite formed the supersaturated carbon would be expelled to the surrounding austenite thus thermodynamically stabilising it against further transformation.
Bainite can essentially be regarded as martensite that tempers during the course of transformation. It forms at a higher temperature than martensite, and even the latter can autotemper. As a consequence, the growing plate of bainite is confronted by a forest of dislocations that eventually terminates its growth even before the plate has hit an austenite grain boundary. Plates of bainite can therefore be smaller than those of martensite in the same steel.
The transformation then proceeds by a sub-unit mechanism involving the successive nucleation of new plates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials.
Bibcode : STAdM.. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. Materials Science and Engineering: A. Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons. In Howe, J. Solid Phase Transformations in Inorganic Materials.
H Bainite in steels. Institute of Materials. Retrieved on ASM International. A History of Metallography. University of Chicago Press. Materials Science Forum. Phase Transformations In Materials. Materials Science and Technology. Acta Metallurgica. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. Scripta Materialia. Philosophical Magazine. Bibcode : PMag Acta Materialia. Retrieved 15 Apr Materials Science and Engineering A. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.
Ferrite Austenite Cementite Graphite Martensite.
Study on Bainitic Transformation by Dilatometer and In Situ LSCM
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: The choreography of atoms during the course of the bainite transformation has major consequences on the development of structure.
High Performance Bainitic Steels
Results show that bainitic ferrite plates preferentially nucleate at the grain boundary. New plates nucleate on previously formed ones, including two dimensions which appear on a plane where a three-dimensional space of bainitic ferrite forms. Nucleation on the formed bainitic ferrite is faster than that at the grain boundary in some grains. The bainitic ferrite growth at the austenite grain boundary is longer and has a faster transformation rate. The bainitic ferrite growth on the formed bainitic ferrite plate is shorter and has a slower transformation rate. The location and number of nucleation sites influence the thickness of the bainitic ferrite. The higher the number of plates preferentially nucleating at the original austenite grain boundary, the greater the thickness of the bainitic ferrite.