CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS PDF

In electronics , a clipper is a circuit designed to prevent a signal from exceeding a predetermined reference voltage level. A clipper does not distort the remaining part of the applied waveform. Clipping circuits are used to select, for purposes of transmission, that part of a signal waveform which lies above or below the predetermined reference voltage level. Clipping may be achieved either at one level or two levels. A clipper circuit can remove certain portions of an arbitrary waveform near the positive or negative peaks or both. Clipping changes the shape of the waveform and alters its spectral components.

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Clipper and Clamper are widely used in analog television receivers and FM transmitters. An electronic device that is used to evade the output of a circuit to go beyond the preset value voltage level without varying the remaining part of the input waveform is called as. There are different types of clipper and clamper circuits as discussed below. As these circuits are used only for clipping input waveform as per the requirement and for transmitting the waveform, they do not contain any energy storing element like a capacitor.

In general, clippers are classified into two types: Series Clippers and Shunt Clippers. Series clippers are again classified into series negative clippers and series positive clippers which are as follows:. The above figure shows a series negative clipper with its output waveforms.

During the positive half cycle the diode considered as ideal diode appears in the forward biased and conducts such that the entire positive half half cycle of input appears across the resistor connected in parallel as output waveform.

During the negative half cycle the diode is in reverse biased. No output appears across the resistor. Thus, it clips the negative half cycle of the input waveform, and therefore, it is called as a series negative clipper. Series negative clipper with positive reference voltage is similar to the series negative clipper, but in this a positive reference voltage is added in series with the resistor. During the positive half cycle, the diode start conducting only after its anode voltage value exceeds the cathode voltage value.

Since cathode voltage becomes equal to the reference voltage, the output that appears across the resistor will be as shown in the above figure. The series negative clipper with a negative reference voltage is similar to the series negative clipper with positive reference voltage, but instead of positive Vr here a negative Vr is connected in series with the resistor, which makes the cathode voltage of the diode as negative voltage.

Thus during the positive half cycle, the entire input appears as output across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the input appears as output until the input value will be less than the negative reference voltage, as shown in the figure. The series positive clipper circuit is connected as shown in the figure. During the positive half cycle, diode becomes reverse biased, and no output is generated across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the diode conducts and the entire input appears as output across the resistor.

It is similar to the series positive clipper in addition to a negative reference voltage in series with a resistor; and here, during the positive half cycle, the output appears across the resistor as a negative reference voltage. Instead of negative reference voltage a positive reference voltage is connected to obtain series positive clipper with a positive reference voltage.

During the positive half cycle, the reference voltage appears as an output across the resistor, and during the negative half cycle, the entire input appears as output across the resistor. Shunt clippers are classified into two types: shunt negative clippers and shunt positive clippers.

Shunt negative clipper is connected as shown in the above figure. During the positive half cycle, the entire input is the output, and during the negative half cycle, the diode conducts causing no output to be generated from the input. A series positive reference voltage is added to the diode as shown in the figure.

During the positive half cycle, the input is generated as output, and during the negative half cycle, a positive reference voltage will be the output voltage as shown above. Instead of positive reference voltage, a negative reference voltage is connected in series with the diode to form a shunt negative clipper with a negative reference voltage.

During the positive half cycle, the entire input appears as output, and during the negative half cycle, a reference voltage appears as output as shown in the above figure. During the positive half cycle the diode is in conduction mode and no output is generated; and during the negative half cycle; entire input appears as output as the diode is in reverse bias as shown in the above figure.

During the positive half cycle the diode conducts causing the positive reference voltage appear as output voltage; and, during the negative half cycle, the entire input is generated as the output as the diode is in reverse biased.

In addition to the positive and negative clippers, there is a combined clipper which is used for clipping both the positive and negative half cycles as discussed below. During the positive half cycle, the diode the diode D1 conducts causing the reference voltage connected in series with D1 to appear across the output.

During the negative cycle, the diode D2 conducts causing the negative reference voltage connected across the D2 appear as output, as shown in the above figure. The positive or negative peak of a signal can be positioned at the desired level by using the clamping circuits. As we can shift the levels of peaks of the signal by using a clamper, hence, it is also called as level shifter.

The clamper circuit consists of a capacitor and diode connected in parallel across the load. The clamper circuit depends on the change in the time constant of the capacitor. The capacitor must be chosen such that, during the conduction of the diode, the capacitor must be sufficient to charge quickly and during the nonconducting period of diode, the capacitor should not discharge drastically.

The clampers are classified as positive and negative clampers based on the clamping method. During the positive half cycle, the input diode is in forward bias- and as the diode conducts-capacitor gets charged up to peak value of input supply.

During the negative half cycle, reverse does not conduct and the output voltage become equal to the sum of the input voltage and the voltage stored across the capacitor. It is similar to the negative clamper, but the output waveform is shifted towards the positive direction by a positive reference voltage. As the positive reference voltage is connected in series with the diode, during the positive half cycle, even though the diode conducts, the output voltage becomes equal to the reference voltage; hence, the output is clamped towards the positive direction as shown in the above figure.

By inverting the reference voltage directions, the negative reference voltage is connected in series with the diode as shown in the above figure.

During the positive half cycle, the diode starts conduction before zero, as the cathode has a negative reference voltage, which is less than that of zero and the anode voltage, and thus, the waveform is clamped towards the negative direction by the reference voltage value.

It is almost similar to the negative clamper circuit, but the diode is connected in the opposite direction. During the positive half cycle, the voltage across the output terminals becomes equal to the sum of the input voltage and capacitor voltage considering the capacitor as initially fully charged.

During the negative half cycle of the input, the diode starts conducting and charges the capacitor rapidly to its peak input value. Thus the waveforms are clamped towards the positive direction as shown above.

A positive reference voltage is added in series with the diode of the positive clamper as shown in the circuit. During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode conducts as initially the supply voltage is less than the anode positive reference voltage. If once the cathode voltage is greater than anode voltage then the diode stops conduction. During the negative half cycle, the diode conducts and charges the capacitor. The output is generated as shown in the figure.

The direction of the reference voltage is reversed, which is connected in series with the diode making it as a negative reference voltage. During the positive half cycle the diode will be non conducting, such that the output is equal to capacitor voltage and input voltage.

During the negative half cycle, the diode starts conduction only after the cathode voltage value becomes less than the anode voltage. Thus, the output waveforms are generated as shown in the above figure. Clippers and clamper circuits are used for molding a waveform to a required shape and specified range. The clippers and clampers discussed in this article can be designed using diodes.

Do you know any other electrical and electronic elements with which clippers and clampers can be designed? If you have understood this article in depth, give your feedback and post your queries and ideas as comments in the below section.

Types of Clippers and Clampers with Applications. Clippers and Clampers Clipper and Clamper are widely used in analog television receivers and FM transmitters. Share This Post: Facebook. Hi Vinod we have explained the applications of clippers and clampers.

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Diode Clippers and Clampers

In this tutorial, we will learn about Diode Clippers and Clampers. Even though rectification is the basic application of diode, Clippers and Clamper circuits are equally important. This tutorial gives a in-depth information about Diode Clippers and Clampers. Most of the electronic circuits like amplifiers, modulators and many others have a particular range of voltages at which they have to accept the input signals. Any of the signals that have an amplitude greater than this particular range may cause distortions in the output of the electronic circuits and may even lead to damage of the circuit components. In view of the fact that most of the electronic devices work on a single positive supply, the input voltage range would also be on the positive side. Since the natural signals like audio signals, sinusoidal waveforms and many others contain both positive and negative cycles with varying amplitude in their duration.

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Types of Clippers and Clampers with Applications

Learning to mathematically analyze circuits requires much study and practice. Typically, students practice by working through lots of sample problems and checking their answers against those provided by the textbook or the instructor. While this is good, there is a much better way. For successful circuit-building exercises, follow these steps:. When students are first learning about semiconductor devices, and are most likely to damage them by making improper connections in their circuits, I recommend they experiment with large, high-wattage components 1N rectifying diodes, TO or TO-3 case power transistors, etc.

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