Management of Aceria litchii Acari: Eriophyidae on Litchi chinensis. Estudiante de doctorado. Litchi chinensis fruits are very popular in the international market. The erinose mite, Aceria litchii Eriophyidae , a major pest of this crop, feeds on the leaves and on all parts of the plants forming erinea. The purpose of this review is to present the most common control methods and to propose integrated management techniques for L. Chemical pesticides are currently the main control measure for this pest; however, the combination of biological, chemical and cultural methods are more promising in the long term.
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Current status of litchi cultivation in producing municipalities of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. Carretera Federal Xalapa-Veracruz km The litchi Litchi chinensis Sonn. Is an exotic fruit of growing productive interest in the states of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico, has good supply in the external market and represents an alternative to generate economic income to producers; however, it has some limitations that prevent it from being potentialized as a profitable crop in some states of Mexico.
The objective was to analyze the current situation of litchi cultivation and producers in three municipalities of Veracruz and Oaxaca and identify the limiting factors for their development. A survey was prepared and applied in March and April to 18 producers from the selected municipalities, integrating the information into a database. The results reveal that in the municipalities of Veracruz each producer has an average of 2.
The majority of production is organic. According to the perception of the producers, the main constraints of the crop are the low yields of production, the ignorance of the crop and the few marketing channels in both states.
It is considered that litchi has great potential to be promoted with support programs, infrastructure and commercialization, which would allow the crop to increase its profitability and productivity. The trends of global trade are directing the look to agricultural products that had not previously been considered in the food schemes, opening new marketing opportunities for novel and exotic crops, as is the case of litchi.
The litchi is a fruit native to Asia with attractive appearance and a pleasant taste sweet and slightly acidic , as well as a high nutritional value, which makes it very accepted by consumers Jiang et al.
According to data reported in , litchi production was 2. In Mexico litchi production has increased in recent years, reporting an area of 3 As shown in Figure 1 , the state of Veracruz ranks first with 9 In Veracruz, the municipalities with the highest production of litchi are Chicontepec 1 t , Papantla 1 t , Tihuatlan 70 t and Misantla 20 t , which are located in the northern part of the state. In the case of the state of Oaxaca, where the production of the fruit is considerable, it is centered in the municipality of Tuxtepec, in the town of San Jose Chiltepec, with 4 t reported in SIAP, The increase in litchi production stands out, especially in the Central zone of the state of Veracruz and in the region of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca; however, it is unknown what is the current situation of the crop in these places, in addition to the advantages and disadvantages that it has in these places.
It is known that litchi fruit suffers from some disadvantages in post-harvest handling as its deterioration shortly after harvest, in addition to other problems such as darkening of the pericarp and the degradation of some compounds present in the fruit, reducing its value in the market Jiang et al.
Alejo-Santiago et al. The objective of the work was to analyze the current status of litchi cultivation productivity, organization, production costs, fruit utilization and commercialization in three municipalities of Veracruz and Oaxaca and in this way contribute to the establishment of improvements in production conditions, conservation and marketing of the crop in the region.
The investigation was carried out during the months of March and April of in the Central region of the state of Veracruz, in the municipalities of Martinez de la Torre and Vega de Alatorre and in the town of San Jose Chiltepec, belonging to the municipality of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca Figure 2 where litchi production has recently increased. In both regions, a survey was applied to 18 producers, for which a structured questionnaire with 56 items was designed, where different aspects related to litchi cultivation were considered.
The method used to establish the population sample was by snowball linear sampling , due to the fact that there is not a register of producers in the municipalities of both states and in addition the number of these is reduced, since by means of the same producers were contacted to apply the surveys Mendieta-Izquierdo, The data obtained were analyzed in Excel through descriptive statistics. The explored categories of the investigation by means of the questionnaire were: productivity, organization of the producers, costs of production, use of the fruit and commercialization.
According to the data collected in the municipalities studied in the state of Veracruz, it was found that the average age of the producers is 59 years, which is considered an advanced average age. They have a schooling of In the case of the municipality of the state of Oaxaca, it was found that the producers had an average age of All producers carry out the activity as individuals and their land is owned private property.
Regarding the cultivated area of litchi, it was observed that in the state of Veracruz, the producers cultivate approximately 2. In this sense, although Veracruz is the state with the highest litchi production at a national level, it was found that, particularly in these municipalities, the area destined for the cultivation of the fruit is smaller than the one used for the same crop in the northern area of the state 10 ha or more, approximately.
On the other hand, litchi producers surveyed in Oaxaca allocate an area of 30 ha on average and are harvested for export. The cultivar that is sown is Mauritius, because it is the one that best adapts to the region, given the climatic conditions that are required, since the fruit is not native to Mexico, influencing the variability of cultivars. The average age of the plantations in the Veracruz area is approximately The litchi presents some restrictive factors for its production and others of the ways to mitigate them are an adequate management and the use of techniques based on the physiological processes related to phenology, foral initiation, flowering, fruit fall and nutritional extraction of the fruit in its different stages of growth Ying and Davenport, The method of propagation used in both regions is by grafting by aerial layering, since in this way the plant begins to produce fruits in less time three to four years , allowing a better adaptation and reducing the probability of replanting.
In Veracruz, the topological arrangement is rectangular with a distance between trees of 4 x 4 m up to 5 x 10 m Figure 4 , with a density of trees per hectare, while in Oaxaca the arrangement is real and rectangular with distances between trees of 10 x 10 m and 6 x 7 m, while the density ranges from trees. Regarding planting density authors mention that the ideal arrangement is 4 x 4 m, since the growth of the tree is slow, so it is recommended to make plantations with high densities, rectangular shape and real frame as is done in the region.
Producers mention that all plants receive a pre-treatment through the application of fertilizer organic or chemical depending on whether the production is organic or conventional , with the purpose of adapting the plant to the soil.
Producers from both states mentioned that they use micro-sprinkler irrigation in the orchards, which is considered as ideal, since water consumption costs are reduced, especially in the case of Veracruz where the liquid is scarce in the drought period in Oaxaca the orchards are located on the river bank, so water does not represent a limitation. These irrigation methods are similar to those used in European and Asian countries, such as Spain and India, where it is reported that maintaining the tree with irrigation reduces the cracking of the fruit cracking of the peel and therefore maintains the quality of the same Singh and Babita, According to the literature, it has been determined that it is ideal to apply fertilization in three stages: before flowering, during flowering and during fruiting Carvalho and Salomao, ; Singh and Babita, None of the producers of both regions applies fertilizer during fruiting, since they mention that applying it at this stage would only cause an increase in foliage but not fruit production.
The fertilization used in other countries is different from that practiced in the study area. For example, in China they apply conventional fertilizer composed of N, P and K before flowering, during flowering and in the development of the fruit, managing to produce up to kg of tree -1 , this means that as long as there are fertilizations with greater regularity, there may be more fruit production Menzel, In other cases, such as India, fertilizer is applied three times a year, without considering the important stages in fruit production Singh and Babita, Regarding the pests that attack litchi culture, similar species were reported in both regions.
Among these are aphids Tessaratoma papillosa , spiders Tetranychus urticae , mites Aceria litchi , worms Elasmopalpus angustellus and mealybug Planococcus citri. In Spain, the main pests that attack this crop are thrips Scirtothrips spp. In Oaxaca, only The harvest of the fruit is done once a year late May-early June when the fruit has a uniform color and an appropriate weight red and 20 g, approximately , because it is a non-climacteric fruit.
The yield of Litchi in the study region in Veracruz is 5. This could be due to the fact that in Oaxaca the density of trees per hectare is lower compared to that of Veracruz.
In addition to the aforementioned, these variations in yield are also mainly related to the management of the crop in each zone and the geographical location latitude and altitude. A similar case occurs in Australia, since in the Australian Litchi Producers Association was formed, which every four years organizes a national conference and publishes an industry newsletter every three months Menzel, Production costs vary for all producers, since some produce their own inputs and others obtain them from suppliers.
In the case of Veracruz, those that buy agricultural inputs acquire them with local and regional suppliers 50 and In both cases it is mentioned that the inputs are used to improve production yields, the quality of the fruit and in some cases by recommendation of the other producers with greater experience in the crop. In addition to the inputs required, the payment of external labor must be considered when the harvest season arrives, since in this period each producer contracts an average of 2.
The But according to recent research, in countries of Asia and Africa the fruit can be preserved through the application of sulfur dioxide, packed using modified atmospheres Chen et al. This means that the producers are outdated in terms of new technologies for fruit conservation.
The fruit can be consumed fresh or transformed into jam, wine, preserves, juice, dehydrated, etc. However, only In litchi marketing there are different types of agents or intermediaries that sell products, among which are wholesalers, collectors and retailers Figure 6. Wholesalers are those marketing agents that operate with large quantities tons of products, including a large number of agents with very varied characteristics, depending on the product and the place.
There are also the collectors secondary wholesaler , who buy the product directly from the farmers; they generally collect small volumes kg and transport them to the consumption or processing centers, they can work with a wholesaler or processor. In the related literature, some marketing strategies were found in other countries to raise awareness and increase litchi consumption.
One of them is implemented in Asian countries Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan , where marketing takes place through local and urban markets. In the case of local markets, the litchi tree is spread in the home gardens of the villages in the subtropical climate zones and for this reason it is customary to consume fruit, either fresh or as an ingredient for meals.
In other developed countries, consumption is very widespread. What limits a greater demand is the lack of knowledge about the fruit and the consumption rooted on other agricultural products more common among consumers. It is worth mentioning that the sale price for export of the fruit from Oaxaca is lower than that of Veracruz, since the producers do not pay for the packaging that is covered by the buyers.
The amount of fruit to export is very low in the two regions but more markedly in Veracruz, because it is very difficult to market abroad, since the export requirements tariff barriers are more demanding uniform color, weight specific and free of pesticides , in addition to which certification is needed. However, they point out that marketing prices can be improved by encouraging consumption of the fruit in the country, in addition to the need to diversify the use of litchi by adding value, increase export to different places and therefore improve its commercialization.
They also indicate that the government should help the development of the crop through supports, infrastructure cooling chambers, transport, packing and opening markets for marketing.
Both states producing litchi present limitations in the regions studied. Among the main ones that stand out and affect the crop are: low yields of production which is affected mainly by climatic conditions and by the management of the crop , ignorance of the producers on the crop chemical composition, requirements of the crop, management of this one, among others and mainly the commercialization, since due to the standards that are requested for its export is complicated.
The cultivation of litchi has increased its production in recent years. It does not require production expenses profits are greater than production costs , which makes it a profitable crop, but which requires adequate care to have good yields. It was detected that an effective technology transfer process is lacking for post-harvest management of the fruit and to develop technological packages appropriate to each growing region.
It is advisable to update the knowledge on the methods of conservation of the fruit of litchi or to look for new alternatives that are more effective than those used in the regions of study; likewise, it is vitally important to adapt vehicles to properly transport the fruit and also to technify the harvesting process used.
One of the main limitations in general are the unsuitable climatic conditions in some areas where it is grown, the commercialization of the fruit due to the lack of certification by the producers, the price of the fruit is lower than in other countries where it is produced and the bad use of this to diversify its use in the elaboration of products with added value.
Alejo, S. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios. Bhoopat, T. Hepatoprotective effects of lychee Litchi chinensis Sonn. Cabral, T. Chemical composition, vitamins and minerals of a new cultivar of lychee Litchi chinensis cv.
Tailandes grown in Brazil. Carvalho, C. Cultura da licheira. Universidade Federal de Vicosa. Chen, W. Postharvest research and handling of litchi in China: a review. Acta Hortic. Departamento de Fruticultura Tropical.
El litchi en Canarias.
Cultivo de Litchi y Rambután en Oaxaca
Litchi Litchi chinensis is an important woody mycorrhizal fruit tree originated in China. In India, the agroclimatic conditions of foothills of the Himalayas in northern states like Bihar, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Punjab, and northeastern states such as Assam and Tripura provide immense scope for litchi cultivation. Various abiotic and biotic factors affect the litchi cultivation and production. Optimum temperature, humidity, soil nutrition, and climatic conditions are the deciding factors to support litchi cultivation, but insect and pest infestation severely affect the overall production of litchi. Insects are the major limiting factor affecting litchi production compared to the diseases. Various agricultural practices such as propagation methods and girdling also have an influence on the litchi plantation and overall productivity of this delicious fruit.