Some parts of them may have been sung. The four plays that have survived are mostly variations on or translations of Italian works. He uses the unfortunate fate of the young sultan as a springboard for more general reflections on the transience of human glory. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.
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It consists of three acts with a total of 28 scenes and 1, verses, written in double rhymed dodecasyllables and octosyllables. The plot of the entire play is set in the pastoral Dubrava in a mythical, pagan time of happiness and well-being, at the time that by its nature reminiscent the golden age of mankind.
Although Dubrava is some mythical country from the distant past, it represents the Dubrovnik Republic because it values freedom as the highest human value, the biggest ideal and virtue that man can reach during his transient life.
The story begins at dawn, symbolically at the time of the birth of a new day but the expected day, " gentle solemn day" , a day dedicated to freedom and its glory and value, comes only once a year which makes all the characters desperately wanting it. It's a day " in which we here make a shrine to sweet freedom ", in which the ideals and virtues are above everyday life and its routine, ordinariness. The strongest and most famous connection with historical events is the motive of the Dalmatian fishermen who come from the land occupied by the Venetians , to a free and independent Dubrava, allegorical Dubrovnik, the symbol of Croatian circumstances at the time due to many attacks by the Ottomans , Venetians, Hungarians , Austrians , French and others.
Dubrovnik thus becomes an allegorical port of salvation for the Croatian people, but also a role model and an inspiration in the fight against the greedy enemies. The theme of the play is a fictional old custom according to which every year a day is celebrated in honor of the goddess of liberty.
On that day, a wedding is officiated between the most beautiful girl and the most beautiful young men chosen by town judges. On that eventful day, an old fisherman came from Dalmatia to Dubrovnik.
His figure clearly shows the difference between the free Dubrovnik and Venetian occupied Dalmatia. In addition to the character of fishermen, the drama shows other minor characters: satyr 's Divjak lit. Instead of the expected choice of Miljenko as the most beautiful young men, judges choose ugly but rich, Grdan lit. Grdan, however, fails in his plan because of the interference of god Lero who causes shakes and thunder and shades flames on the fire just before the wedding ceremony.
At the moment in which Miljenko enters the church, shakes and thunder cease, and the fire flares up again which is interpreted as Lero's sign that Miljenko, and not Grdan, should become Dubravka's husband. In the last scene of the play, on the feast of freedom, priest first offers symbolic votive gift - releasing from a cage birds of the god of love - followed by the appearance of Miljenko with an olive branch and Dubravka with a rose.
Dubravka was formed under the influence of the very popular plays like Guarini 's ''Loyal shepherd'', Tasso 's "Aminta" and Sanazzarov 's "Arcadia", which were at the time considered peaks of pre-Baroque literature.
With the acts of allegorizing mythological-pastoral world of drama, Dubravka expands the meaning of the plot on the contemporary political world of Dubrovnik and also expands with the convention certain limits of the pastoral and pastoral genre itself.
At the same time, according to its ideal imaginary political vision of a prosperous city-state, Dubravka is a kind of utopia; it is a hymn to the ideal social order and to the best of all possible countries ruled by divine principles of fairness, honesty, beauty, and goodness. The structure of Dubravka is characterized by the interplay of all three literary genres. Drama is expressed in the division of the ranks and sayings or three acts divided into sayings. The drama features can also be seen in the characters, scenic and numerous dialogues aka.
Epic features are expressed in the design and expansion of dramatic action, which is more often recounted than showed. This can be seen in the denouement Lero's rebellion against unfair and unreasonable Grdan which does not appear on the scene as a dramatic picture but is recounted by a character.
The plot itself, the story about the well-being of the golden age of human existence, is epic by its elements. In the chanting of love, happiness, and prosperity, Dubravka is revealed as distinctly lyrical work, sometimes with Petrarca's descriptions of beauty. Branko Vodnik wrote that pastoral play Dubravka was "an anthem of Dubrovnik's freedom," adding that since the 10th century people of Dubrovnik celebrated Festivity of Saint Blaise as a folk festival and that scenes in Dubravka reminiscent of scenes from these festivities.
Vodnik claims that the play's main motive of marriage between the most beautiful shepherd with the most beautiful shepherdess comes from the Venetian custom of the feast of St. Mark, when the Doge symbolically throw a ring into the sea and troth Venice, Queen of the Sea, with the Adriatic. In addition, Vodnik pointed out that Dubrava is an allegory of Dubrovnik.
Allegories of the characters would be - Grdan - rotten rich man, Dubrava - Dubrovnik, shepherds - nobility, Dubravka - Dubrovnik authorities.
Thus, the character of Grdan couldn't be an allegory for a nobleman, but for a member of another class, dangerous for the nobility, that nobility feared because of its richness and influence. Therefore, the question of Grdan in Dubravka is an internal matter of the Dubrovnik Republic. The Dalmatian fisherman is a character that warns about "bad situation in Dalmatia under Venetian rule, the greatest enemy of Dubrovnik, in order to stress better situation in Dubrovnik.
Miljenko is against the "gift" for Dubravka, with "gift" perhaps being an allusion to the gifts "that some nobles received from rich citizens for their services" or "the state borrowing money from local rich people". Also, Miljenko, due to his uncertainty in the proclamations of love toward Dubravka as his predetermined companion, brings kind of inappropriate dramatic turn to the pastoral. The question is: are Miljenko's words even words of a man who is in love with a woman?
According to its content, Dubravka is a social satire against progressive and justified demands of young citizens of Dubrovnik; just because of that it also at the same time defends the nobility status quo. It is, therefore, a hymn to the landowning freedom which was conceived and implemented by Dubrovnik nobility. So Dubravka, besides the known elements and some conventional characters, also has an original clip of domestic life in its content.
The theme of the play is a fictional old custom according to which each year a day is celebrated in honor of the goddess of liberty. The first modern performance was staged by the Croatian National Theater in , on the three hundredth anniversary of the poet's birth, so the show was performed four times until February of the same year.
Until , it was performed additional fifty times in Zagreb. Mark's Square in as part of the national repertoire with an emphasis on realistic scenery. Tito Strozzi set Dubravka in in Zagreb with new Gotovac's music, then in in Dubrovnik, for the first time in the same place where the first performance took place.
Strozzi was setting Dubravka unlit Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb added Dubravka into its program as a permanent play and with a permanent exhibition in the early s. The play was directed by Petar Selem who adjusted it to the war-torn Croatia and the world in which there was fear of terrorism and in which the political corruption has become part of the government and every aspect of society.
The scenery was created by the famous Italian set designer Raffaele del Savio, while the music was taken from the sheet music and manuscripts of Jakov Gotovac. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dubravka Cover for the edition. Categories : Croatian poetry 17th-century books. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
He received an excellent education. After that he studied Roman law and jurisprudence in general, where he held numerous offices for the Great Council of the Republic. Twice, in and , he held the temporary function of knez commissary or governor of Konavle, an area southeast of the city. From until his death Ivan held various offices in the city government. Had he lived a little longer — he died of an intense fever, product of an inflammation in his ribs Folio 15 Libr.
Who is Who in Dubrovnik: Ivan Gundulic
You've definitely seen his statue, you've probably taken a photo of him, you may have even found yourself sitting underneath him in a desperate attempt to catch your breath in the summer sun, but do you know who he is? Get to know one of Dubrovnik's most celebrated figures Ivan Franov Gundulic was born on the 8th of January and was known affectionately by the nickname Macica. His best known works are perfect examples of rhetorical excess and Baroque-style richness of the time, they include the religious poem Tears of the Prodigal Son, the epic poem Osman and the pastoral play Dubravka. Owing to his background and riches, the young Gundulic received an education that could be envied by many, likely studying philosophy and humanities alongside big names of the time such as Silvestro Muzio and Ridolfo Ricasoli. Following that, he studied Roman law and went on to hold offices for the Great Council of the Republic, becoming a member of the Great Council at the tender age of nineteen.
File:Dubravka Ivan Gundulic 030809.jpg
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