Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. La media de APVP por cada muerte atribuible al alcohol hasta la edad de 65 fue de 7,5. Full Text Available Objetivo. To study the mortality attributable to tobacco and alcohol consumption.
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Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras , and Paraguay. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources.
Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV programs in Ecuador, Honduras , and Paraguay from the societal perspective.
Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a year period in each country. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints. In , the population of Paraguay stood at 4 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.
Of the labor force of 1. The inflation rate was Paraguay is a constitutional republic with a powerful executive branch. Since assuming power in , President Alfredo Stroessner has been concerned with the re-establishment of internal order as a basis for economic development. The Colorado Party, the military, and the government bureaucracy are the pillars of the Stroessner regime. Although this regime has brought stability and economic growth, this has been achieved at considerable cost to political rights and individual liberties.
Obstacles to development have included fluctuating prices for major export items, the long and expensive river or land routes that foreign trade must traverse, a small domestic market, and internal and external trade barriers.
Despite these limitations, agricultural production has grown rapidly, especially cotton and soybeans for export. Paraguay has exceptional hydroelectric potential and is expected to become the world's largest exporter of hydroelectric energy within the next decade. The country's stable government, conservative fiscal policies, and laissezfaire approach to trade and investment have brought economic improvement to a broad segment of society.
In addition, the government has attempted to ameliorate rural poverty with a land program. Survey of bat populations from Mexico and Paraguay for rabies. A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico October January and in Paraguay August March ; a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues.
The surveys combined provided brain samples 65 bat species for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay , tested positive for the rabies virus overall prevalence rate of 0. Nucleotide sequence from a bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. Honduras is a country with an area of 68, square miles, with considerable mountainous terrain, and a subtropical but variable climate. It has a population of 4. The main religion is Catholic with a fast growing Protestant minority, and the language is Spanish. The government is a democratic constitutional republic established in Despite being poor and underdeveloped, natural resources include arable land, hydro- electric power, and considerable forest, marine, and mineral resources.
Agriculture products include coffee, bananas, citrus fruit, corn, beans, and livestock. The major industries are textiles, cement, wood products, cigars and foodstuffs. In the last few years with US aid the economy has grown 3.
Honduras must undertake major economic reforms to gain longterm growth and stability since it has large fiscal and trade deficits, a large public bureaucracy, poorly run state enterprises and overvalued exchange rate.
Honduras has an area of , square km or 43, square miles with a population of 4. After independence from Spain in the Central American Federation collapsed in There have been internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador.
USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in despite an electoral quirk. In President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in and , modest progress is forecast for and The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing.
The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor fruits, refining, and mining. The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires.
This article introduces case studies of innovative approaches to pedagogy among indigenous Mayan communities in Chiapas Mexico and Lencan communities in Intibuca Honduras. Innovative approaches to researching alternative theories and practices of pedagogy are used by the author to develop an epistemology of critical pedagogy and its potential….
Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina, Honduras , and Mexico : study protocol. Little is known about congenital transmission of T. The specific aim of this study is to determine the rate of congenital transmission of T. We are measuring transmitted maternal T. If at least one of the results is positive, we are identifying infants who are congenitally infected by performing parasitological examinations on cord blood and at 4—8 weeks, and serological follow-up at 10 months.
We also are performing T. Data are managed by a Data Center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data are entered online at the sites in an OpenClinica data management system, and digital pictures of data forms are sent to the Data Center for quality control. Weekly reports allow for rapid feedback to the sites. Trial registration Observational study with ClinicalTrials.
A study of tales in a normal working day of the family doctor in Paraguay , Mexico , Peru, and Spain]. To examine the professional profile of the family doctor in different countries and the social welfare context where their work is carried out.
Qualitative Methodology of production of field diaries of a normal day. Non-random sampling, intentional, followed by snowball sample until data saturation. Participants wrote a diary of a typical day's work, their circumstances and socio-health context, and were studied by content analysis. Techniques to control the biases were used the check the participants and the triangulation between the obtained results and the existing bibliography, and data found on the Internet daily.
We performed a mental map to transcribe the results graphically and in a comprehensive form. A total of 24 diaries of a normal day were obtained 9 doctors in Spain, 7 in Mexico , 4 in Paraguay , and 4 in Peru. We found some similarities, but many differences between countries. In contexts of humble but spirited, rural, with traditional roots and undemanding, there was a wider range of tasks of the family doctor, the coexistence of public and private work, and modern and traditional medicine, with greater presence of family and community care, more physician satisfaction and better patient-physician relationship.
The professional profile of the family doctor is diverse and a context-dependent variable, and is not derived directly from external theory of family medicine. All rights reserved. Honduras : Caribbean Coast. Harborne, Alastair R. The coast of Honduras , Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country.
Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event.
Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries.
Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution particularly sewage and infrastructure development.
Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over.
The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress. Poor urban communities in most countries in Latin America and the Experiencia Educacional en Paraguay. Se supone. Legal framework: Renewables in Honduras. The paper describes the framework organic structure and legislation in promotion of renewables in Honduras , the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity.
Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Paraguay : population and the economy. Paraguay 's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges.
The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service.
A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange.
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Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books. FRED data. Simplice A. Odhiambo, Heckman, Patrick A.
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