Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Evaluar la sensibilidad a insecticidas piretroides, organofosforados y carbamatos en poblaciones de Ae. Se recolectaron poblaciones de Ae. Las ocho cepas de Ae. Los insecticidas aplicados para el control de Ae. Full Text Available Objetivo.
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The invention is related to compositions with agrochemical activity comprising an insecticide and a biostimulant. The compositions of the invention favor an adequate germination percentage, promote the emergence of the crop and exhibit activity against pests of beetles, lepidoptera, blasts, hymenoptera and orthoptera insects while exhibiting desirable physicochemical properties. Additionally, the invention also relates to processes for manufacturing the compositions and their use against such pests.
In order to promote growth and reduce or destroy fungi, pests, weeds and other unwanted species, fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides are applied to chemical plants.
This is of particular importance in the field of commercial agriculture, where obtaining maximum yield is desirable. The chemical fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides available have the positive effect of reducing unwanted species and promoting growth; however, they have a negative effect on crops.
For example, such chemicals can damage the crops to which they are applied. For its part, US teaches compositions to improve the health and performance of a plant that may comprise, among other components, mixtures of vitamin Bl, B2 and B6 and thiodicarb. The composition is applied to the seeds of a plant. Additionally, US teaches a composition employed as a pesticide antidote for plants comprising auxin main component , vitamins, insecticide and a plant growth regulator.
Therefore, there is a continuing need for agrochemical compositions that exhibit improved properties. The compositions of the present invention comprise an insecticide and a biostimulant to achieve the desired agrochemical effect.
The present invention provides an agrochemical composition comprising at least one insecticide and at least one biostimulant. In one embodiment of the invention, the composition additionally comprises at least one adjuvant. In one embodiment of the invention, the insecticide is selected from, for example, carbamate type and phenylpyrazole type insecticides.
In another embodiment, the biostimulant comprises, for example, brassinosteroids, triacontanol, B vitamins and a glycoside. In another embodiment, the at least one adjuvant is selected, for example, from the group comprising polymeric surfactants, antifoams, biocides, preservatives, thickeners and stabilizers. In one embodiment, the agrochemical composition of the present invention prevents, for example, soil pests, such as coleoptera, lepidoptera, blatodeos, hymenoptera and orthoptera insects and increases vigor and germination to the seed.
In another embodiment, the agrochemical composition of the present invention promotes the emergence of the crop. In another aspect, the composition of the invention can be formulated, for example, as soluble concentrated liquids, emulsifiable concentrate, dispersible concentrates, emulsions, suspensions or suspoemulsions, solid, soluble powder, wettable powder, dispersible granules or soluble tablets preferably as concentrated suspension.
In a further aspect, the invention provides a method for the preparation of the agrochemical composition. The use of the term "approximately" provides a certain additional range. The term is defined as follows. In an exemplary, but not limitative manner, if "approximately 40 g" is said, the exact range is between 36 to 44 g. The term "agrochemical" includes substances that work as fertilizers, fertilizers, phytohormones, phytosanitary agents and phytosanitary substances such as herbicides, insecticides or fungicides ie as pesticides in general.
The term "phytoregulator" refers to a product whose main functions are to stimulate or paralyze the development of roots and aerial parts.
Within the phytoregulators are included plant hormones phytohormones , polyamines, jasmonates, salicylic acid, brasinosteroids and systemin. The term "biostimulant" refers to biological substances that act by potentiating certain metabolic and physiological pathways of plants having a positive impact on plant health. They influence various metabolic processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, nucleic acid synthesis and ion absorption, improve the expression of growth potential, early flowering as well as being enzymatic reactivators.
The term "adjuvant" refers to products that help improve the effectiveness or efficiency of application of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, foliar fertilizers, hormones, etc. Play a role essential in growth and development, participating in processes of cell expansion, division and differentiation in young tissues of growing plants.
The absence, defect or problems of its assimilation in plants, immediately translates into drastic changes in the phenotype of plants such as severe dwarfism, decreased fertility, poor root development, changes in leaf morphology and other abnormalities. Examples of these compounds include but are not limited to homobrasinolide, dolicolide, homodolicolide and brasinone. Triacontanol for the purposes of the present invention is a fatty alcohol, also known as melisyl alcohol or miricyl alcohol.
Triacontanol is a growth stimulant for plants. The so-called carbamate insecticides according to the present invention comprise a functional group formed by a carbamate ester. These insecticides kill insects causing the reversible inactivation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
Its main characteristics are its high toxicity, its low chemical stability and its zero accumulation in tissues, a characteristic that places it at an advantage compared to organochlorines with low degradability and high accumulation. Included in this group are, for example, aldicarb, carbofuran Furadan , phenoxycarb, thiodicarb, carbaryl Sevin , ethienocarb and phenobucarb.
For its part, the mechanism of action of phenylpyrazole insecticides is to block the chlorine channels regulated by GABA in the cell membrane of the cells of the central nervous system, the affected insects show hyperexcitation and eventual death.
Some of the functions of the adjuvants used in the invention are to reduce the surface tension, thus increasing the wetting effect of each sprayed drop; act as humectants, since when applied on the vegetable surfaces they establish a continuous and homogeneous spray film, thus increasing the specific contact area; act as emulsifiers, stabilizing the mixture of immiscible substances; act as dispersants, favoring the correct dispersion of the product in the application; and act as adherents, increasing the adhesion of the products, moderating the action of washing by rain or irrigation.
The agrochemical composition of the present invention comprises at least one insecticide and at least one biostimulant. In one embodiment of the invention, the agrochemical composition comprises at least one insecticide, at least one biostimulant and at least one adjuvant. The insecticide comprised in the agrochemical composition of the present invention is selected, for example, from carbamate-type and phenylpyrazole-type insecticides.
In one embodiment of the invention, the insecticide comprised in the agrochemical composition is selected, for example, from the group comprising thiodicarb, fipronil and carbofuran. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, insecticides are added in a weight percentage of about The biostimulant of the agrochemical composition of the present invention comprises one or more of brassinosteroids; triacontanol; B vitamins, more preferably Bl thiamine , B2 riboflavin and B6 pyridoxine ; and optionally a glycoside.
In one embodiment of the invention, the biostimulant is added in a weight percentage of about The agrochemical composition of the present invention may comprise about 0. The adjuvants of the agrochemical composition of the present invention are selected from the group comprising, for example, polymeric surfactants, defoamers, biocides or preservatives, thickeners and stabilizers.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, adjuvants are added in a weight percentage of about It should be noted that the agrochemical composition of the present invention was formulated based on the compatibility of the active ingredients and adjuvants.
In one embodiment of the invention, polymeric surfactants are added in a weight percentage of about 1. The defoamers of the composition of the present invention are preferably mixtures of siloxane, sorbitol and silicon, an example of conventional defoamer is that sold under the brand Antifoam XT. In one embodiment of the invention, defoamers are added in a weight percentage of about 0.
In one embodiment of the invention, the antifoam prevents foaming during the spraying of the agrochemical composition of the invention. The biocides or preservatives of the composition of the present invention are low toxicity biocides for the protection of water-based products that can be used in a wide range of pH and temperature, showing effectiveness against bacteria, fungi and yeasts in a wide range of products.
In one embodiment of the invention, the biocides or preservatives are added in a weight percentage of about 0. The thickeners and stabilizers of the composition of the present invention are preferably selected from the group comprising guar gum, tragacanth, xanthan gum and glycols, an example of a commercial stabilizer is propylene glycol.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention xanthan gum is added as a stabilizer, which due to its natural origin requires the addition of a biocide to prevent its decomposition. In one embodiment of the invention, the thickeners are added in a weight percentage of between about 0.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention propylene glycol is added as a stabilizer, which provides stability to the formula by means of an antifreeze effect, with the advantage of exerting less harmful effects on the environment and on the human being.
In one embodiment of the invention, stabilizers are added in a weight percentage of between about 2.
In yet another embodiment, the agrochemical composition of the present invention exhibits desirable physicochemical properties such as adequate wetting, dispersion, stability, viscosity and poor foaming. The agrochemical composition of the present invention may preferably be formulated as an aqueous concentrated suspension. The process for manufacturing the agrochemical composition of the present invention comprises incorporating water into a tank.
The product is sampled for review until the parameters are reached between about 0. The agrochemical composition of the present invention can be used for the treatment of seeds of cereal grains, grasses and legumes that include but are not limited to corn, sorghum, beans, soybeans, wheat, oats, barley, triticale, etc.
The treatment of the seeds comprises inoculating the seeds with an effective amount of the agrochemical composition of the present invention. The inoculation of the seeds with the agrochemical composition can be carried out preferably in the first days of sowing. In a preferred embodiment, the agrochemical composition is more effective when applied in the first days of planting in which the crops are more susceptible to attack by soil pests.
In a preferred embodiment the inoculation comprises spraying the seed evenly by placing on a canvas or blanket or in a plastic bag and stirring until it is sprayed homogeneously, then it is allowed to dry for approximately 2 to approximately 10 minutes, preferably approximately 5 minutes. The agrochemical composition of the present invention can be used for the control of pest beetle insects, such as diabrotics, tenebrionids and phyllophagos.
The agrochemical composition was prepared using the components as shown in Table Table 2. Final parameters of the agrochemical composition. Example 2. Evaluation of the biological effectiveness of the agrochemical composition in the control of Phyllophaga sp.
The field study consisted of the evaluation of 5 treatments and an absolute control as shown in Table 3. The treatment was carried out on the seed, at the time of planting. It consisted of spraying the seed evenly, for this the seed was placed on a canvas or blanket or in a plastic bag where it was removed until it was sprayed homogeneously, then dried for 5 minutes and immediately sown. Based on the field conditions, such as pest distribution, crop growth conditions, effect of borders or nearby crops, a completely randomized experimental design was decided.
The experimental unit consisted of 7 furrows of 0. The number of larvae of Phyllophaga sp. This was done at 15 and 30 days. Similarly, 3 strains per experimental unit were counted to have more accurate data.
Table 5. Score scale proposed by EWRS European Weed Research Society to evaluate weed control and crop phytotoxicity and its percentage agronomic interpretation. The percentage of control was determined with the following Abbott formula:. Table 6. Evaluation at 5 days of the corn seed treatment with the agrochemical composition of the invention for the control of soil pests and root development. Table 7 shows the results of the third evaluation of the treatments applied to seed for the control of soil pests and plant development.
Table 7. Evaluation at 7 days of the corn seed treatment with the agrochemical composition of the invention for soil pest control and root development. First evaluation of the percentage of root damage when applying the agrochemical composition of the invention in corn seed treatment for 15 days. Table 8. Second evaluation of the percentage of root damage when applying the agrochemical composition of the invention in treatment to corn seed 30 days. Table 9. The agrochemical composition of the invention is surprisingly effective against the control of soil pests in the cultivation of corn covering the critical period of competition of the crop in the first stage of development where the plant begins to form roots and anchor the earth in addition; however, the dose that proved to be the most favorable is that of 3 with
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