Haematopinus eurysternus is a sucking louse of cattle. Haematopinus eurysternus is one of the largest louse currently seen on domestic mammals, at around 4mm in length. The abdomen is dark blue and the head and thorax is a greyish yellow. The eggs have a very thick outer shell, and are white in colour. The females lay one egg per day for around 2 weeks, which is their approximate lifespan.
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In temperate climates, domestic cattle may be infested with one species of chewing louse Damalinia bovis , formerly Bovicola bovis and four species of bloodsucking lice Linognathus vituli , Solenopotes capillatus , Haematopinus eurysternus , and H quadripertuses.
Except for H quadripertuses , these lice have a cosmopolitan distribution, ie, they are found throughout most of the world. H quadripertuses, the cattle tail louse, is a tropical louse that has extended its distribution into subtropical areas. The cattle tail louse is known to parasitize both European and Zebu breeds of cattle.
Cattle, especially young animals, may be infested with multiple species of lice simultaneously. S capillatus and H eurysternus infestations are more often recognized on mature animals, whereas L vituli is more commonly seen on calves and on dairy stock.
For all age classes of cattle, stressors such as high stocking density, poor feed quality, gestational status, and underlying health issues are often contributing factors to susceptibility and degree of infestation. Site Predilection. Damalinia bovis. Linognathus vituli. Infestations tend to be heavier in anterior portions of the body, including the ears, during warm weather. Pediculosis in cattle can decrease weight gain and milk production, result in weight loss, and cause hide and hair damage.
L vituli can serve as a mechanical vector for Anaplasma marginale , the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis see Anaplasmosis. Outside the USA, H eurysternus populations have been found to contain multiple Rickettsia spp, but the role lice play in transmitting rickettsial agents is not well understood.
A variety of compounds effectively control lice in cattle, including synergized pyrethrins; the synthetic pyrethroids cyfluthrin, permethrin , zetacypermethrin, and cyhalothrin including gamma- and lambda-cyhalothrin beef cattle only ; the organophosphates phosmet, chlorpyrifos beef and nonlactating dairy cattle only , tetrachlorvinphos, coumaphos, and diazinon beef and nonlactating dairy cattle only ; and the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin , eprinomectin, and doramectin.
Pour-on formulations are effective against biting and bloodsucking lice, whereas injectable formulations are primarily effective against bloodsucking lice. Although both amitraz and spinosad are effective against lice, the last cattle products containing amitraz were removed from the USA market in Spinosad formulations for use on cattle were officially discontinued in the USA in Certain Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle have organophosphate hypersensitivity, which should be considered when selecting a treatment compound.
Because of ease of application and reduced stress to the treated animal, the pour-on method has become a popular way to apply insecticides. Self-treatment devices also can be used, such as back rubbers, oilers, dust bags, and ear tags. Cattle dips have fallen out of favor in the USA because of the labor-intensive nature of the process and amount of chemical needed to keep vats charged with active compound.
The compound chosen must be appropriate for the animal's age, reproductive status, and production system. The treatment of meat and dairy animals must be restricted to uses specified on the product label, and all label precautions should be carefully observed.
Appropriate meat and milk withdrawal times must be observed. In most countries, regulatory agencies specify tissue residue limits of insecticides and carefully regulate insecticide use on livestock. All regulations are subject to change, and pertinent current local laws and requirements should be determined before treatment. Husbandry issues overcrowding, poor feed quality, etc and underlying health conditions in animals should be addressed.
Treatment will be most effective if stock trailers, chutes, and other areas cattle have contacted are cleaned and treated with an appropriate premise spray. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.
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Pathogenesis and Disease Transmission:. Test your knowledge. Which species is the most prevalent flea on dogs and cats in North America? More Content. Lice in Cattle By Jennifer E.
Site Predilection of Cattle Lice. Adults often confined to the tail, eggs commonly noted on tail switch. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Lice in Sheep and Goats. Overview of Lice. Lice in Pigs. Dermatophilosis in Animals. Add to Any Platform. Chewing Lice. Damalinia bovis cattle biting louse, red louse.
Most commonly found on dorsum Infestation may extend cranially to head and caudally to tailhead. Bloodsucking Lice. Linognathus vituli long-nosed cattle louse. Most commonly found over withers, lateral shoulders, and dewlap May have generalized distribution over animal In early infestations, may be found in clusters In heavy infestations, may be found over most of body.
Haematopinus eurysternus short-nosed cattle louse. Often found on front half of host from ears to dewlap Infestations tend to be heavier in anterior portions of the body, including the ears, during warm weather. Solenopotes capillatus little blue cattle louse. Found in distinct clusters, mainly on head and face Heavy infestations may extend to dewlap or surround eyes.
Haematopinus quadripertuses cattle tail louse.
Louse Infestation of Ruminants
Group A was treated in and group C in and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation subgroups A1 and C1 , while others were noncarriers subgroups A2 and C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity.
EPPO Global Database
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Haematopinus eurysternus (Shortnosed cattle louse)
Haematopinus is a genus of insects in the suborder Anoplura , the sucking lice. It is the only genus in the family Haematopinidae ,  known commonly as the ungulate lice. Species include: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Haematopinus Haematopinus apri Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia.
Australian Biological Resources Study
In temperate climates, domestic cattle may be infested with one species of chewing louse Damalinia bovis , formerly Bovicola bovis and four species of bloodsucking lice Linognathus vituli , Solenopotes capillatus , Haematopinus eurysternus , and H quadripertuses. Except for H quadripertuses , these lice have a cosmopolitan distribution, ie, they are found throughout most of the world. H quadripertuses, the cattle tail louse, is a tropical louse that has extended its distribution into subtropical areas. The cattle tail louse is known to parasitize both European and Zebu breeds of cattle. Cattle, especially young animals, may be infested with multiple species of lice simultaneously. S capillatus and H eurysternus infestations are more often recognized on mature animals, whereas L vituli is more commonly seen on calves and on dairy stock.